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Question 1:

DRAG DROP

Drag and drop the OSPF adjacency states from the left onto the correct descriptions on the right.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:

Down

This is the first OSPF neighbor state. It means that no information (hellos) has been received from this neighbor, but hello packets can still be sent to the neighbor in this state. During the fully adjacent neighbor state, if a router doesn\’t receive

hello packet from a neighbor within the Router Dead Interval time (RouterDeadInterval = 4*HelloInterval by default) or if the manually configured neighbor is being removed from the configuration, then the neighbor state changes from Full to

Down.

Attempt

This state is only valid for manually configured neighbors in an NBMA environment. In Attempt state, the router sends unicast hello packets every poll interval to the neighbor, from which hellos have not been received within the dead interval.

Init

This state specifies that the router has received a hello packet from its neighbor, but the receiving router\’s ID was not included in the hello packet. When a router receives a hello packet from a neighbor, it should list the sender\’s router ID in its

hello packet as an acknowledgment that it received a valid hello packet.

2-Way

This state designates that bi-directional communication has been established between two routers. Bi-directional means that each router has seen the other\’s hello packet. This state is attained when the router receiving the hello packet sees

its own Router ID within the received hello packet\’s neighbor field. At this state, a router decides whether to become adjacent with this neighbor. On broadcast media and non-broadcast multiaccess networks, a router becomes full only with

the designated router (DR) and the backup designated router (BDR); it stays in the 2-way state with all other neighbors. On Point-to-point and Point-to-multipoint networks, a router becomes full with all connected routers.

At the end of this stage, the DR and BDR for broadcast and non-broadcast multiacess networks are elected. For more information on the DR election process, refer to DR Election. Note: Receiving a Database Descriptor (DBD) packet from a

neighbor in the init state will also a cause a transition to 2-way state.

Exstart

Once the DR and BDR are elected, the actual process of exchanging link state information can start between the routers and their DR and BDR. (ie. Shared or NBMA networks). In this state, the routers and their DR and BDR establish a

master-slave relationship and choose the initial sequence number for adjacency formation. The router with the higher router ID becomes the master and starts the exchange, and as such, is the only router that can increment the sequence

number. Note that one would logically conclude that the DR/BDR with the highest router ID will become the master during this process of master-slave relation. Remember that the DR/BDR election might be purely by virtue of a higher priority

configured on the router instead of highest router ID. Thus, it is possible that a DR plays the role of slave. And also note that master/slave election is on a per-neighbor basis.

Exchange

In the exchange state, OSPF routers exchange database descriptor (DBD) packets. Database descriptors contain link-state advertisement (LSA) headers only and describe the contents of the entire link-state database. Each DBD packet has

a sequence number which can be incremented only by master which is explicitly acknowledged by slave. Routers also send link-state request packets and link-state update packets (which contain the entire LSA) in this state. The contents of

the DBD received are compared to the information contained in the routers link-state database to check if new or more current link-state information is available with the neighbor.

Loading

In this state, the actual exchange of link state information occurs. Based on the information provided by the DBDs, routers send link-state request packets. The neighbor then provides the requested link- state information in link-state update

packets. During the adjacency, if a router receives an outdated or missing LSA, it requests that LSA by sending a link-state request packet. All link-state update packets are acknowledged.

Full

In this state, routers are fully adjacent with each other. All the router and network LSAs are exchanged and the routers\’ databases are fully synchronized. Full is the normal state for an OSPF router. If a router is stuck in another state, it is an

indication that there are problems in forming adjacencies. The only exception to this is the 2-way state, which is normal in a broadcast network. Routers achieve the FULL state with their DR and BDR in NBMA/broadcast media and FULL state

with every neighbor in the remaining media such as point-to- point and point-to-multipoint.

Note: The DR and BDR that achieve FULL state with every router on the segment will display FULL/DROTHER when you enter the show ip ospf neighbor command on either a DR or BDR. This simply means that the neighbor is not a DR or

BDR, but since the router on which the command was entered is either a DR or BDR, this shows the neighbor as FULL/DROTHER.

Reference:

https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/13685-13.html

Each router compares the DBD packets that were received from the other router: Exchange

Routers exchange information with other routers in the multiaccess network: Exstart

The neighboring router requests the other routers to send missing entries: Loading

The network has already elected a DR and a backup BDR: 2-way

The OSPF router ID of the receiving router was not contained in the hello message: Init

No hellos have been received from a neighbor router: Down

When OSPF adjacency is formed, a router goes through several state changes before it becomes fully adjacent with its neighbor.

The states are Down -> Attempt (optional) -> Init -> 2-Way -> Exstart -> Exchange -> Loading -> Full. Short descriptions about these states are listed below:

Down: no information (hellos) has been received from this neighbor. Attempt: only valid for manually configured neighbors in an NBMA environment. In Attempt state, the router sends unicast hello packets every poll interval to the neighbor,

from which hellos have not been received within the dead interval.

Init: specifies that the router has received a hello packet from its neighbor, but the receiving router\’s ID was not included in the hello packet

2-Way: indicates bi-directional communication has been established between two routers. Exstart: Once the DR and BDR are elected, the actual process of exchanging link state information can start between the routers and their DR and

BDR.

Exchange: OSPF routers exchange and compare database descriptor (DBD) packets Loading: In this state, the actual exchange of link state information occurs. Outdated or missing entries are also requested to be resent.

Full: routers are fully adjacent with each other

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f0e.shtml

Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/13685-13.html Reference: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/13685-13.html


Question 2:

DRAG DROP

Drag and drop the MPLS terms from the left onto the correct definitions on the right.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:


Question 3:

DRAG DROP

Drag and drop the MPLS VPN concepts from the left onto the correct descriptions on the right.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:

Reference: https://www.rogerperkin.co.uk/featured/route-distinguisher-vs-route-target/


Question 4:

DRAG DROP

Drag and drop the packet types from the left onto the correct descriptions on the right.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:

Unlike legacy network technologies such as ISDN, Frame Relay, and ATM that defined separate data and control channels, IP carries all packets within a single pipe. Thus, IP network devices such as routers and switches must be able to distinguish between data plane, control plane, and management plane packets to treat each packet appropriately. From an IP traffic plane perspective, packets may be divided into four distinct, logical groups:

1.

Data plane packets -End-station, user-generated packets that are always forwarded by network devices to other end-station devices. From the perspective of the network device, data plane packets always have a transit destination IP address and can be handled by normal, destination IP address- based forwarding processes.

2.

Control plane packets -Network device generated or received packets that are used for the creation and operation of the network itself. From the perspective of the network device, control plane packets always have a receive destination IP address and are handled by the CPU in the network device route processor. Examples include protocols such as ARP, BGP, OSPF, and other protocols that glue the network together.

3.

Management plane packets -Network device generated or received packets, or management station generated or received packets that are used to manage the network. From the perspective of the network device, management plane packets always have a receive destination IP address and are handled by the CPU in the network device route processor. Examples include protocols such as Telnet, Secure Shell (SSH), TFTP, SNMP, FTP, NTP, and other protocols used to manage the device and/or network.

4.

Services plane packets -A special case of data plane packets, services plane packets are also user- generated packets that are also forwarded by network devices to other end-station devices, but that require high-touch handling by the network device (above and beyond normal, destination IP address-based forwarding) to forward the packet.

Examples of high-touch handling include such functions as GRE encapsulation, QoS, MPLS VPNs, and SSL/IPsec encryption/decryption, etc. From the perspective of the network device, services plane packets may have a transit destination IP address, or may have a receive destination IP address (for example, in the case of a VPN tunnel endpoint).

Reference: https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/resources/copp_best_practices


Question 5:

DRAG DROP

Drag and drop the DHCP messages from the left onto the correct uses on the right.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:

DHCPINFORM: If a client has obtained a network address through some other means or has a manually configured IP address, a client workstation may use a DHCPINFORM request message to obtain other local configuration parameters, such as the domain name and Domain Name Servers (DNSs). DHCP servers receiving a DHCPINFORM message construct a DHCPACK message with any local configuration parameters appropriate for the client without allocating a new IP address. This DHCPACK will be sent unicast to the client.

DHCPNAK: If the selected server is unable to satisfy the DHCPREQUEST message, the DHCP server will respond with a DHCPNAK message. When the client receives a DHCPNAK message, or does not receive a response to a DHCPREQUEST message, the client restarts the configuration process by going into the Requesting state. The client will retransmit the DHCPREQUEST at least four times within 60 seconds before restarting the Initializing state.

DHCPACK: After the DHCP server receives the DHCPREQUEST, it acknowledges the request with a DHCPACK message, thus completing the initialization process. DHCPDECLINE: The client receives the DHCPACK and will optionally perform a final check on the parameters. The client performs this procedure by sending Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) requests for the IP address provided in the DHCPACK. If the client detects that the address is already in use by receiving a reply to the ARP request, the client will send a DHCPDECLINE message to the server and restart the configuration process by going into the Requesting state.

Reference https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/dynamic-address-allocation-resolution/27470-100.html


Question 6:

DRAG DROP

Drag and drop the SNMP attributes in Cisco IOS devices from the left onto the correct SNMPv2c or SNMPV3 categories on the right.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:


Question 7:

DRAG DROP

Drag and drop the BGP states from the left to the matching definitions on the right.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:


Question 8:

DRAG DROP

Click and drag the associated set of OSPF LEAs on the left to the corresponding area type on the right where this set of LEAs may be seen.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:


Question 9:

DRAG DROP Refer to the exhibit.

Drag and drop the credentials from the left onto the remote login information on the right to resolve a failed login attempt to vtys. Not all credentials are used.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:

vty 0:

cisco

0csic

vty 1:

no username

no password

The command “aaa authentication login default none” means no authentication is required when access to the device via Console/VTY/AUX so if one interface does not specify another login authentication method (via the “login authentication …” command), it will allow to access without requiring username or password. In this case VTY 1 does not specify another authentication login method so it will use the default method (which is “none” in this case).


Question 10:

DRAG DROP

Drag and drop the operations from the left onto the locations where the operations are performed on the right. Drag each definition on the left to the matching term on the right.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:

Label Switch Router

1.

Reads labels and forwards the packet based on the based on the label.

2.

Performs PHP

Label Edge Router

1 Assigns labels and unlabeled packets.

2. Handles traffic between multiple VPNs


Question 11:

DRAG DROP

Drag and Drop the IPv6 First-Hop Security features from the left onto the definitions on the right.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:


Question 12:

DRAG DROP

Drag and drop the actions from the left into the correct order on the right to configure a policy to avoid following packet forwarding based on the normal routing path.

Select and Place:

Correct Answer:

Reference: https://community.cisco.com/t5/networking-documents/how-to-configure-pbr/ta-p/3122774


Question 13:

Refer to the exhibit. Users in the branch network of 2001:db8:0:4::/64 report that they cannot access the Internet. Which command is issued in IPv6 router EIGRP 100 configuration mode to solve this issue?

A. Issue the eigrp stub command on R1.

B. Issue the no eigrp stub command on R1.

C. Issue the eigrp stub command on R2.

D. Issue the no eigrp stub command on R2.

Correct Answer: B


Question 14:

Refer to the exhibit. Which configuration configures a policy on R1 to forward any traffic that is sourced from the 192.168.130.0/24 network to R2?

A. access-list 1 permit 192.168.130.0 0.0.0.255 ! interface Gi0/2 ip policy route-map test ! route-map test permit 10 match ip address 1 set ip next-hop 172.20.20.2

B. access-list 1 permit 192.168.130.0 0.0.0.255 ! interface Gi0/1 ip policy route-map test ! route-map test permit 10 match ip address 1 set ip next-hop 172.20.40.2

C. access-list 1 permit 192.168.130.0 0.0.0.255 ! interface Gi0/2 ip policy route-map test ! r oute-map test permit 10 match ip address 1 set ip next-hop 172.20.20.1

D. access-list 1 permit 192.168.130.0 0.0.0.255 ! interface Gi0/1 ip policy route-map test ! route-map test permit 10 match ip address 1 set ip next-hop 172.20.40.1

E. access-list 1 permit 192.168.130.0 0.0.0.255 ! interface Gi0/1 ip policy route-map test ! route-map test permit 10 match ip address 1 set ip next-hop 172.20.20.1

Correct Answer: E


Question 15:

R2 has a locally originated prefix 192.168.130.0/24 and has these configurations: What is the result when the route-map OUT command is applied toward an eBGP neighbor R1 (1.1.1.1) by using the neighbor 1.1.1.1 route-map OUT out command?

A. R1 sees 192.168.130.0/24 as two AS hops away instead of one AS hop away.

B. R1 does not accept any routes other than 192.168.130.0/24

C. R1 does not forward traffic that is destined for 192.168.30.0/24

D. Network 192.168.130.0/24 is not allowed in the R1 table

Correct Answer: A


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